Kakarigeiko teaching practice

In Kakari-geiko the teacher opens the attack line and indicates various attacks or combinations and yells encouragement as the student dashes in, cuts, dashes past and turns to cut again without pause or rest. This style of practice is very exhausting and the teacher will often take a rough attitude and strike the student if he pauses or even hit his legs or back if he does not dash past. Two or three minutes at a time is normally quite sufficient if the student is expelling his full effort and...

Shiai Kite Contest Rules

Contest is normally performed under the eye of one or more referees depending on senior grades available. The contest Ma Ai (fighting distance) is greater, with a good twelve inches between the points. There is an Omote Shinban (front referee) and one, or two Ura Shinban (rear judges) and contestants normally have coloured sashes on their backs and flags are employed to indicate scoring. Two simultaneous decisions are required for the cut to score, according to complex rules. A good...

WarmingUp Before Practice

Warming-up is as necessary in Aikido as it is in other physical activities. One loosens up one's joints and muscles. Starting from the feet, one twists one's ankles. Then one softly but firmly taps one's insteps with the palms of the hands. Next in a sitting position and with your legs tucked underneath you tap your thigh, shoulders and chest. From a standing position bend one knee and push the other leg out. Try to get down as far as possible. Keep the outstretched leg straight. Next stand in...

Koshiwaza hip technique

The hip techniques are different to those in Judo. In Aikido, we make what we call 'T' form. This is not so much lifting your partner up as using your hips as a see-saw. Imagine that the thrower is the upright part of the 'T' and your partner is the cross. There are numerous techniques that one can do with Koshi-waza. But usually these are not taught until the grade of 1st Kyu because of the special use of the hips and the breakfalls involved. I have selected two main ones for this book. This...

The Spirit of Aikido

You will find that the more you practise Aikido, the more the self-defence aspect will become of secondary importance. By the physical practice of Aikido we are trying to find the truth by technique. If one's technique is not correct or true, then one's way of life is false and one can never be fully confident of oneself. I think that material things can only bring happiness up to a point but it is the deeper inner happiness that we are seeking and Aikido is one way of finding this. You will...

Uchiotoshi striking down

This is in effect the reverse of Harai, in that in this instance the semi-circle strikes downwards instead of upwards. This is not illustrated since it will appear the same as plates 138 and 139. As with Harai the defending blade clashes against the Tsuba Moto (guard base) of the attacking blade but is normally less efficient since it is necessary to lift the blade again to make the reply cut, and time is lost unless the attacker is striking to either the Kote or Do. In the case of Do, which...

What is Judo

Modern Judo techniques consists of four main divisions. They are throws, strangles, armlocks and hold-downs. Any one of these scores a point in competition. One point only is required to win. This is because in the early Samurai days it was thought that one of these techniques would finish off the enemy or at least put him at a serious disadvantage. A successful throw is obvious. The man is whirled up and over and thrown with impetus on his back. The thrower must show that he has control and...

Starting Judo

The best way to learn judo is at a reputable club. If you have difficulty in finding a local club the British Judo Association will advise of your nearest one. It is also advisable to check with the BJA about your instructor. There are many charlatans professing to be judo experts who will tell you they are such and such a black belt. Grades in judo are awarded for ability and progress through various coloured belts and then through Dan grades. They are Sixth Dans and above may wear black belts...

Suwari Waza Sitting Techniques

These sitting and kneeling techniques are more difficult for Europeans than for Eastern students. The Aikido manner of kneeling and sitting is the Orient's natural way of sitting. Unless one starts young it is hard to acquire this suppleness. But with persistent practice one should be able to learn these techniques. This is a very good exercise for the student's body especially for the hips. When I began Aikido my teacher instructed me mostly from the kneeling positions. This lasted for two...

Sparring

Basic sparring (kihon kumite) was first introduced into karate in the 1920s by Gichin Funakoshi. It was made possible by the contact of karate with the ethics of Japanese martial arts, which stress mutual trust between opponents. Gradually, basic sparring was developed until free style sparring and finally contest became possible. The modern student, in his own personal development, follows the same path from five- and one-step basic sparring to competition. All forms of sparring begin and end...

Yonkyo fourth principle st form

The opponent grasps your right wrist. Turn as in Sanyo and catch his right hand with your left. Twist his wrist with your right hand and put the bottom of your left forefinger on his right pulse. Push upwards, making sure that his elbow than his shoulder, then cut his arm down to the ground. At the same time, step forward with the left foot. Pin him down and release on submission. This concludes the fundamental techniques. Throws are often achieved in Aikido by forcing an opponent to throw...

Jujijime cross strangle

An excellent opportunity for applying this strangle is when you are sitting astride your opponent. As quickly as possible thrust both hands down into the opponent's collar as deep as possible with the thumbs on the inside of his collar. As soon as you have got this deep grip, throw yourself to the side, clamp your man tightly between your legs and pull his head into your body. As you pull him in the crossgrip of your arms you should press into the side of his neck and make him submit. One point...

Judo as Self Defence

Although ability in a judoman to throw, strangle or put an arm lock on an adversary makes him somebody to fear in a brawl, judo itself is not a complete system of self-defence. The judoman, although practising some form of kicking or striking in kata, is not thereby made completely efficient. All the combat arts are deficient in one way or another. A boxer is vulnerable to attacks at a low level or in close quarters. The karate man is weak on the ground or perhaps due to the continuous pulling...

Iriminage enter body throw th form attack

Your partner holds your lapels with his right hand. Step back to your right corner with your left foot. Attack his face with your right hand. Follow through until your arm is under his right hand. Swiftly turn back and with a big circle with your shoulder break his grip. At the same time, step into his right side with your left leg. Catch his neck with your left hand. Take a big step with your right leg so that you are in the opposite direction. Bring your partner in a wide, smooth circle. Keep...

Iriminage enter body projection st form

Irimi-nage is the enter body projection throw and is a special technique of Aikido. When your opponent catches your right wrist with his right hand, keep your right arm straight. Step in with your left foot into his rear side, your left hand encircling his neck. You are now the centre of the movement, and, stepping backwards with your right foot so that he is on the outside circle pull him into your right shoulder. Hook your right hand under his chin and throw him down. Most of the control...

Hints on Free Practice

Practise all the techniques illustrated so far, as often as possible, on an unresisting partner standing still and then on the move. In randori free practice do not let an opportunity for a counter go by. Some people feel that counter-throws are not quite sporting However, don't let this bother you Disregarding opportunities for a counter can become a habit which could easily lose you a contest. Also an attacker will have to sharpen up his throws if he knows a counter awaits them. This makes...

Hikiwaza reversed techniques

Although students below the Dan grades have little chance of scoring with a backward cut these are practised, especially when the first attack may be blocked. In this case the student, instead of passing, steps quickly backwards and cuts to another undefended point. Hiki means 'pulling' although the student should not be mislead by this. The action of Hiki-giri is exactly the same as a forward stroke, except that the body is moved backwards. The actual pulling action is achieved by the left...

Henkawaza combination technique

The idea of combination techniques is to train the individual to change from one technique to another. Thus if your partner escapes from one technique one can quickly switch to another. Also by being able to follow him by the feel of his movement and direction, combination techniques give you control over your partner the whole of the time. There are many combination techniques but you will find that if your practise properly they will come automatically through your Aikido movement. This will...

Hazushiwaza avoiding techniques

These are not illustrated but consist in allowing the attacker to almost complete his stroke, then suddenly avoid the cut and reply before he can recover. It is not considered good form to 'dodge' about or 'duck' and Hazushi-waza are performed in correct posture, normally raising the blade at the same time. Hazushi-waza can be performed by stepping backwards or to the side and also by releasing the right hand and cutting or thrusting with the left, as described before. If we move too soon the...

Haraigoshi sweeping hip

Step across with your right foot as in the previous throw, then round with the left foot so as to pivot as before. This time the right leg sweeps into the opponent's right leg, so it is not necessary to push your hips completely in front of the opponent's. As your left leg swings round pull the partner forward and with your right leg sweep the opponent up so that he almost somersaults and lands on his back. Study the plates. The arms in this throw pull the...

Harai sweeping

This is the same action as in Shikake-waza but instead of a full circle only a semi-circle is necessary, to sweep aside the down-coming blade. Men-barai-men is shown in plates 138 and 139. The action of Harai is to thrust the defence spiral, or cone obliquely into the attack arc, so as to cant it over and tilt the axis off, see diagram 13. Strong Shibori wringing action is made when sweeping and the hands and palms should relax again prior to the actual cut. Harai give the greatest variety...

Hand Techniques Defence

As in the attacking techniques, many of the parries used in karate are 'focused'. That is to say, one's entire strength is concentrated at the point and the moment of impact, after which the muscles are immediately relaxed. As a result, pain or even injury may be inflicted with the parry alone, and the opponent sufficiently discouraged from attempting any further attack. When parrying, however, you should always have a counterattack ready to follow up with. Be sure that you maintain a good...

Hand Techniques Attack

Although a wide variety of striking surfaces is used in karate, the basic weapon is the fist. For our purposes, however, this must be capable of striking surfaces of high resistance with great power and speed without injury to oneself. It is therefore most important that the fist be correctly formed. Starting with the hand open, curl the little finger over until the tip of the finger meets the base. Curl the other fingers in turn finishing with the index finger. Now bend the fingers together...

Foot Techniques Attack

Without training, it is really more difficult than one might suppose to damage an opponent by kicking him - unless, of course, he's already lying on the ground. However, in karate the feet are so thoroughly trained that their use about doubles the scope and effectiveness of one's fighting repertoire. With all kicks, take great care that the supporting leg is firmly planted. It must be capable of bearing the weight of the body, plus the momentum and shock of the attack, without loss of balance....

Different Ways of Practising

This is usually the way for beginners and uses the forms as laid down. Once you understand the basic form then try to add more movement to it. 2. The next stage is for three people to practise. This gives two students against one so as to provide a more continuous practice and teaches you to react more quickly to the attack. Sometimes practise gently - other times practise hard. When I say hard I do not mean with strength but by non-stop practise with your...

Deashibarai advancing foot sweep

This throw embodies fully the judo principle of seriyoku-zenyo - the maximum efficient use of mind and body. When it is done properly the thrower exerts very little force at all. Success in this throw depends upon speed and timing. De-ashi-barai is attempted a lot by beginners with the result that the opponent's shins get very bruised. Like o-soto-gari it seems easy but is in fact quite difficult. Study the action shots of this throw. The opportunity for this throw occurs when your opponents...

Contest Hints

The two most important aspects of karate for contest are timing and distance. You must react the moment you see an opening and be close enough, given the maximum speed of which you are capable, to get the attack in before the gap is closed or the opponent can move out of distance. Of course, getting an attack in successfully when your opponent is just waiting and on his guard is very difficult. You may put him off his guard by relaxing - or, rather by appearing to relax - or else by giving a...

Conclusion

There is no such thing in Aikido as a contest. It is against all the principles of the art. Thus, if you practise 'contest' Aikido, you are not practising true Aikido but street fighting. It is therefore better to practise in the streets as it is cheaper and the training is not so hard In Aikido, you must remember that your partner is not your enemy but your friend. Look after his welfare as well as your own. Help him to learn Aikido. If you injure him purposely then he will go away and you...

Comment on Wood Breaking

It's perhaps appropriate that we should reserve a short chapter near the end of this section for the aspect of karate that so many people think is karate Although not so important as these people think, 'tameshiwari' is not practised purely as exhibitionism. It provides the more serious student with additional indications of the progress he's making. It helps us appreciate how powerful and effective a given attack is when it is not withdrawn short of impact, as it must be when the target is...

Comment on the Different Schools of Karate

There are as many different schools of karate today as there were of judo and kendo in the old days of 'ju-jitsu' and 'ken-jitsu'. Generally speaking, the various schools or subsidiary schools are named after the pioneers or experts who founded them. Not only in karate, but in all the martial arts, each individual has his own idea of what is essential and his style will conform to it. It doesn't of course follow that each individual is qualified to found a 'school'. To make a rough...

Callisthenics

Every training session should begin and end with a callisthenics routine. At the beginning of a session it should immediately follow the preparatory meditation. This tones up the muscles, making them easier to control and co-ordinate, and also loosens the joints. At the end of a session it immediately precedes the closing meditation, and helps to prevent stiffness. A good idea is to start with the neck, rotating the head first in one direction, then the other bending the head sideways, then...

Body Shifting

In karate, body shifting may be achieved by stepping, sliding, turning, or by any combination of these basic elements. The following general rules apply to all methods of body shifting 1. Your head should be always more or less at the same height from the floor. Therefore, when moving from one wide-legged stance to another your feet come together and your knees must be well bent. This helps to maintain a strong balance. 2. You should neither raise your feet very high from the floor nor drag...

Ashi Waza Leg Throws Ouchigari major inner reap

When a man stands with his feet fairly wide apart his weight and balance will be evenly spread. The idea of this throw is to take one leg away suddenly causing him to fall over. This is not so easy as it sounds. A man sensing that you are going to reap one of his legs away will either close his legs or shift his weight to his other leg. The essence of this throw is to catch him with his legs spread wide and in the actual execution of the throw make sure that his weight is mostly over the leg...

Aikijyo jutso stick technique

Techniques against a stick are very popular in Aikido. This is one of them. Your partner thrusts to the stomach with the end of the stick. Move to the outside - as shown in the photo - and catch the stick with your right hand. Bring your partner round in a circle. Then grab the centre of the stick with your left hand, bringing your right hand over your own head. Push the stick in front of your partner's body. Turn your own body by swivelling on the balls of your feet and throw him backwards.

Aikido Ken Williams The Background of Aikido

Aikido is a scientific form of self-defence created over fifty years ago by Master M. Uyeshiba, who is still practising at the age of eighty-six at the world centre of the fighting art -the Aikikai, Tokyo, Japan. Aikido was a secret known only to a relatively few privileged Japanese up until as recently as 1948. The requirements to gain entrance into the inner chambers of the Aikido gymnasium and to learn Aikido's art and philosophy were many including at least two recommendations from...

Aikido Gradings

To assess the student's ability in Aikido, he or she has to take an examination before a Dan Grade Black Belt . In this examination, the students with their partners go through the techniques that have been taught. These techniques have been laid down in the grading syllabus. This applies for all the Kyu grades up to 1st Kyu. If a pupil is trying for a Black Belt then he can only be graded by a 4th Dan or above. This method has been laid down by the Aikikai, the world centre of Aikido. All...

Aikido Breakfalls

Aikido Ukemi breakfalls are similar to those in Judo. At all times they should be soft, and your body should be kept like a ball. But unlike Judo at no time should one hit the mat with your hand in order to soften the shock. In Judo, we argue that if you find it necessary to use Ukemi in the street softening the blow by hitting the ground with your arm, you will only succeed in hurting your arm. In Aikido we learn to roll when thrown so as to recover on one's feet. Ukemi are important. You must...

Tsuki the thrust

The only thrust in Kendo is to the throat guard or Kubi-tare, the stiff pad at the lower bottom of the grill. The Tsuki is very dangerous since the Shinai is a rigid weapon and this thrust is forbidden below the rank of 3rd Kyu. At all times the Tsuki should be performed with caution. A wild jab can easily damage the neck, or slip under the pad and cause permanent damage to the throat. The Tsuki should only be employed when it has been properly taught and practised. This is shown in plate 125...

Bogyo defence

Bogyo is not really bothered with in Kendo other than as a means to create an opening for a counter-technique but certain methods do exist. Uke-dome defence stop is described later and is more or less the direct parry. There are other methods of deflection or blocking and all avoid direct clashing with the opponent's Shinai and normally attack the downcoming Tsuba-moto guard base which is moving relatively slowly. The easiest method of defence is Hiraku or 'turning open' in which, for example,...

Breath Control and Kiai

Breath-control has been described as being 'zen itself in its physiological aspect'. Even before schools of Zen existed the relation of breath-control to awareness was a major preoccupation of Indian 'yoga' and chinese 'taoism'. One's rhythm of breathing is, after all, affected by either the physical or mental state that one is in. When exhausted after training, one breathes heavily when excited, one breathes quickly when one laughs, the emphasis is on the outbreath when one cries, or is...

Dress of Aikido

The Aikido dress varies according to whether one is a Dan or Kyu grade. All Kyu grades wear trousers, jacket and belt of the Kimono style. These clothes are suitable for the art because of the freedom of movement and the strength of material. Dan grades wear Hakamas. This dress has been kept from the old days in Japan when the Samurai used to wear them. The dress has the other advantage that it teaches the student to move properly by keeping the feet closer to the mat. Cleanliness is very...

Nikkyo second principle th form attack

Your partner catches your wrist with his right hand. Step back to your right corner with your left foot. Your right hand attacks his face. Follow through with the back of your hand brushing down his arm. Your left hand catches your jacket above his hand and with your right hand take hold under his hand. Now turn it over until his little finger is uppermost, making sure that you keep it tight to your body. With your left elbow, bend his elbow and bear pressure on his wrist until he submits by...

Ukedome defence stop

This is the straight 'parry and riposte', plates 136 and 137. The attacking blade is caught and held in the Hidari-men-uke-dome left mask parry position and the counter attack stroke made before he can react. In this action the blade is canted forward and across the body, whilst being snapped backwards so that strength enters the blade by the linear motion applied along its length. The point of the defending blade remains along the centre-line to aid in delivering the counter-blow and strikes...

Defence and counter to Ogoshi

The thrower in this and other throws depends upon breaking your balance to the right front corner. It is his left hand pulling on your right sleeve which achieves this. To successfully stop these forward hip throws snatch your right arm and should back with a considerable jerk causing him to lose his grip. To counter this throw and its variations sweep away his supporting left leg once the attacker is in position with an action something like ko-soto-gari. This is not a very 'clean' counter,...

Seoinage shoulder throw

This throw is traditionally the favourite of the little man. However, in these days of weight divisions men of any size can use it. The advantage of this throw for a smaller man is that once he is in position even though outweighed by two or three stone it is still possible to carry it through against resistance. Many throws fail if the initial impetus is halted but not the shoulder throw. There are two ways to do it, both of which are equally effective. I'll describe the double arm should...

Kaeshi reversing

As in plates 144, 145 and 146 the defending blade thrusts forward into the attack, then suddenly reverses so that the opposing blade slides away and from there is swung up into the Jodan high posture position to strike. Great suppleness is necessary and the twisting off action should be smooth. This can be very easily performed against Tsuki and can be performed to either side. It is normally necessary to step further out to the side with Kaeshi-waza, so as to allow more room for the reply.

Judo Syd Hoare Judo History

Judo as a martial art came into existence in 1882 being derived from the much older techniques of attack and defence called ju-jitsu. Before the advent of judo or more properly Kodokan Judo there existed some twenty independent ju-jitsu schools. A young Japanese man Jigoro Kano, wanting to be able to handle some bigger bullying companions, decided to join one of the ju-jitsu schools. He studied the techniques of various schools for several years. Finally in 1882 he established his own which he...

Advanced Aikido Techniques Defence against a knife Attack to the stomach

There are many ways in which you can be attacked with a knife but I am giving the most basic technique for you to practise. With the practice of Aikido, the others will come more easily to you. Your partner lunges at you with the knife. Turn to the rear in a clockwise direction so that your partner is kept moving. Step back with your left foot, at the same time catch the back of his hand with your right hand and then throw him. As soon as he falls, lock his arm by placing your right arm on his...

Counter techniques nd form Nikkyo second form into Sankyo third form

With counter-techniques you must completely follow your partner. At no time resist his technique, otherwise you will find that you cannot counter him. This is a very good exercise for harmony and relaxation. Make sure that you first try to 'give' yourself to your partner. Do not practise these techniques too fast until you have learnt to completely relax. First I will describe 2nd form Nikkyo. Your partner grasps your left wrist with his right hand. Step back with your left foot towards your...

The Basic Principles of Aikido

The basic techniques of Aikido are very important to learn thoroughly. In this book I cannot give you all of them as they are too numerous. But I have tried to give you a good overall guide. It is difficult to learn true Aikido from a book and the best way is to practise in a club under a good teacher. But use this book in conjunction with your training. This book, I hope, will help you to understand the real meaning of Aikido. If you can imagine that you are like a spinning top and if someone...

The Aikido Techniques Shinonage four direction throw st form

This technique is the four direction projection as used in Japanese fencing. It involves turning on the left and right foot and cutting in four directions. Your opponent grasps your right wrist with his right hand. By making a spiral movement with your right hand, you then catch his wrist. At the same time catch the back of his right hand with your left hand, breaking his balance to his front. Do not lean backwards but keep your body slightly forward. Step through with your left leg, keeping...

Kaitennage spiral throw st form

This technique is a spiral throw and involves a circular movement. All techniques of Aikido are circular and not angular. This is important to remember. When the opponent attacks you for 1st form, step slightly back with your left leg. Your right hand follows your body, taking his arm over his head as you escape backwards under his arm. Keep your hand in the same position, push forward thus making an arc. At the same time you should catch his right wrist with your left hand. With your right...

Reishiki Ceremonial Form

Reishiki is important for self-discipline and safety during the practice, since it reminds the students that they are there to study seriously. The details of laying out equipment and the precise form Reishiki takes will vary from Dojo to Dojo but that given here is fairly typical. The student when visiting merely follows the particular form of that school. A training session without Reishiki will be casual and lacking in form, which prevents the development of united spirit among students and...

Hassokamae figure of eight posture

Hasso-kamae is not illustrated but the Shinai is carried almost vertically at either shoulder, so that in combination the two complimentary sides are likened to the Japanese figure eight, or Hachi. These are sometimes referred to as Yo-no-kamae and Inno-kamae, Yo-in being the positive negative principle Yinyang in Chinese . Hasso has variations in the Jodan and Chudan positions, the former high above the head and the latter low at the hip and canted backwards. As a minor point Waki-gamae takes...

Taiotoshi body drop

This is a very popular throw and forms part of the repertoire of most judomen. One reason for it's popularity is that it is almost impossible to counter. It is also possible to do it when the opponent is standing still, moving forward, sideways or backwards. It is most used as a forward throw which I will describe here. Stand in the right natural posture with your right foot about midway between your partner's two feet. Swing your left foot round and out about half in front of your partner's...

The Principles of Cutting

The essence of Kendo consists in Kiri-otoshi, or 'striking downwards' and each technique is virtually the same. If we can master a single technique of delivery this may be applied with equal facility in any direction or angle. For clarity we are forced to separate various actions into sections but the student is advised to regard all techniques as simple variations of the basic fundamental action. Two directions of cut are included, with the blade moving forward Oshigiri, or backward,...

Kotogaeshi small hand twist st form

This technique is called the small hand twist. As your opponent catches your right wrist with his right hand, grab the top of it with your left hand and at the same time turn ninety degrees to your right. Keep your head looking in the same direction as you are going and your partner will come round in a semi-circle. Now change your direction, going back with your leg. Your right hand should push on the back of his right hand, throwing him. At all times try to keep this a smooth action and use...

Tommy Otani The Introduction

This section on Kendo is more a manual for students thana Teach Yourself attempt. It has been taken for granted that the reader is either a student already or considering starting. True Kendo, in common with older Martial Arts, will lack clarity unless it is practised. The writer studied Kendo under Master Kenshiro Abbe Sensei during the period 1955 to 1964 and wishes to thank him for all his help. He is well known as one of the leading Martial Arts teachers - he was the youngest-ever All Japan...

The Power of Ki and Kokyu

When listening to people talk about Aikido, you will hear about the power of Ki Spirit and Kokyu Breath control . Both are things that cannot easily be explained as they are spiritual feelings. I am still trying to acquire these powers fully. I have found that these powers in Aikido are only possible when one is fully relaxed. So if one loses one s temper one will never find this power. This is why I feel sure that it is important to practise not only the technical side of Aikido but also to...